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Central place

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  1. General terms and concepts
  2. Centrality research: Description of central place systems
  3. Steering impact of central place concepts
  4. Outlook
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The term ‘central place’ was coined by Christaller as part of his central place theory. He defines central places as location clusters of goods (goods and services) that are characteristic for central places (descriptive term). In spatial planning practice, the municipality, as the addressee of the legal norm allocating the central place function, is mostly equated with the central place (normative term).

Thomas Terfrüchte, Florian Flex

City, town

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  1. The phenomenon of the city/town: a multifaceted term
  2. The city/town: terms and phenomenon
  3. The city/town in regional, national and international contexts
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This paper enquires into and elucidates the terms related to the city/town and its characteristics from different perspectives – in everyday language and in interdisciplinary urban research. Since the terms associated with the city/town can be simple or complex and may relate more closely to society and/or space, particularly within urban geography, they open up a multifaceted approach to the topic, with references being made to specific aspects in the Handbook of Urban and Spatial Development.

Heinz Heineberg

Civil society

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  1. Introduction
  2. The traditional understanding of the term and the current understanding of civil society
  3. Civil society as an interpretative framework for social and political stakeholders
  4. Civil society and democracy
  5. Civil society and the economy
References

Civil society is a social sphere which lies beyond the state, but not outside the political sphere. These stakeholders exist in an intermediate public space between the state, the commercial sector and the private sphere. This article explains the background to the history of the idea and the current popularity of the term in the social sciences.

Ansgar Klein

Climate protection

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  1. Introduction: Climate protection and climate change
  2. Action areas for climate protection in urban and spatial development
  3. Climate protection in urban land-use planning and spatial planning
  4. Conclusions
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Spatial planning and urban land-use planning can contribute to climate protection by reducing emissions through climate-compatible settlement structures; decreasing the amount of energy used by transport, settlements and buildings; and developing and/or safeguarding land for renewable energies and carbon sinks. Energy strategies and communication strategies can play a supporting role.

Mark Fleischhauer

Concepts of spatial planning (Raumordnung)

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  1. Definition and overview
  2. Origin and historical development
  3. The basic concepts of spatial planning
  4. Informal strategies of spatial planning and spatial development
  5. Conclusions and outlook
References

The concepts of spatial planning, which were introduced in the 1960s and developed thereafter, describe some fundamental principles of spatial structures and some general schemes that are based on those principles and which are particularly geared towards implementation. This article shall discuss the essential concepts of spatial planning, their origin and historical development as well as their current significance in spatial planning, including in relation to informal strategies.

Angelika Münter, Frank Osterhage

Cooperation, cross-border

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  1. Definition and relevance
  2. Challenges
  3. Legal framework
  4. Instruments, forms of steering, institutions
  5. Funding programmes
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Cross-border cooperation refers to cooperation between regional and municipal territorial authorities as well as other partners in bordering regions. This cooperation is promoted in all European border regions as part of the European regional policy to overcome border barriers.

Robert Knippschild

Cooperation, transnational

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  1. Definition and relevance
  2. INTERREG – Transnational cooperation
  3. Federal programme – Transnational cooperation
  4. Macro-regions and macro-regional strategies
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Transnational cooperation refers to cooperation between national, regional and municipal partners involving several member states of the European Union. This cooperation is promoted as part of European regional policy for the purposes of integrated spatial development.

Robert Knippschild

Cooperative planning

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  1. Terminology
  2. Theoretical classification
  3. Cooperative planning in practice
  4. Conclusions and discussion
References
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Cooperative planning is the result of a changed perception of the state, whereby hierarchical administrative action is supplemented by cooperative elements. An essential characteristic of cooperative planning is coordination through the reconciliation of interests and compromise. This requires skills in moderation and process management to complement the qualification profile of urban and spatial planning.

Jörg Knieling

Cultural landscape

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  1. Cultural landscapes and spatial planning
  2. Cultural landscapes in science
  3. Cultural landscapes in practice
  4. Suburban spaces as cultural landscapes
References

One of the principles of spatial planning in Germany is the preservation and development of cultural landscapes. Inventories and regionalisation determine which landscapes are considered a concern of planning. Depending on the precise understanding of cultural landscapes, they will generally be landscapes that are characterised by cultural and historical elements and structures.

Winfried Schenk, Elena Tillmann