Equivalence of living conditions

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  1. General explanation and discussion of the term
  2. Historical development and current significance
  3. Justifications for interregional redistribution
  4. Costs of interregional redistribution
  5. Putting the equivalence of living conditions into concrete terms
  6. Political strategies and instruments for creating equivalence of living conditions
  7. Conclusions and outlook
Additional literature

‘Equivalence of living conditions’ aims to improve the social and economic situation in disadvantaged regions until a minimum level is reached. In determining the level and the required government measures, potential negative effects and social changes, such as demographic change, must be considered.

Martin T. W. Rosenfeld

European city

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  1. Definitions
  2. The European city as a guiding principle
  3. Intellectual traditions and discourse
  4. Attributions of diverse characteristics
  5. The future viability of the European city
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Different cultures, religions, systems of government, ethnicities, economies, planning systems and projects have paved the way for the development of various city characters in Europe. Social change has transformed cities again and again and resulted in the vestiges, upheavals and overlaps that characterise European cities today. Cities thus reflect the respective political, legal and administrative situations and long historical processes. The European city cannot be clearly defined.

Dirk Schubert

European spatial development policy

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  1. Definition and demarcation: What is European spatial development policy?
  2. Cooperation between EU member states in the field of spatial development
  3. Instruments of European spatial development policy
  4. European urban development policy
  5. Summary
Additional literature

As part of the European spatial development policy, the ministers of the EU member states responsible for spatial development coordinate spatially relevant decisions with each other and with the European Commission. They agree on strategic papers, cooperate with sectoral policies, are supported by research and implement elements of their policies in European cooperation programmes.

Karl Peter Schön

European Union

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  1. Introduction
  2. Structure of the EU
  3. EU institutions
  4. The policymaking process of the European Union
Additional literature

The European Union plays an important role in the European integration process. The European Commission is responsible for submitting legislative proposals and overseeing the single market. Laws are adopted jointly by Parliament and the Council in a process involving close cooperation with stakeholders from society and sometimes with regional and local governments too.

Thomas Conzelmann