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  1. Understanding the concept
  2. Explanatory approaches
  3. Classic progression models and new forms of gentrification
  4. Discussion
Additional literature

Gentrification describes the comprehensive process of change in a residential area in which an upgrading of the built/spatial environment (induced by the real estate sector or by socio-cultural or political factors) is accompanied by or presupposes the displacement of previous population groups by higher-status groups.

Susanne Frank


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  1. Concept and development
  2. Regional governance
  3. Governance and the social construction of spaces
  4. Practical significance
Additional literature

Governance is an umbrella term which covers all forms of coordinating the collective and interdependent actions of stakeholders and organisations. The concept of governance draws attention to two aspects: collective action to fulfil public tasks is nowadays embedded in complex structures and takes place by combining different steering modes. Spaces and regions are social constructs in the sense that they must first be constituted by the social actions of stakeholders.

Arthur Benz, Heiderose Kilper

Guiding principles for spatial development

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  1. Classification and limitation
  2. Perspectives
  3. Three generations of guiding principles
  4. Meeting the need for orientation

The term guiding principle is multifaceted. Yet it can be said that when guiding principles are spoken of, the focus is essentially on orientation and on communicating notions of development. Against this background, this article focuses on guiding principles in spatial planning [Raumordnung in German, in the sense of normative concepts for the supra-local and superordinate regulation and planning of space and its related processes and institutions – Translator’s note] with a particular look at the Federal Republic of Germany. In addition to pinning down the term and its historical development, the article addresses the so far identified three generations of guiding principles: the Spatial Planning Policy Guidelines of 1993 as well as the Guiding Principles for Spatial Development of 2006 and 2016.

Jürgen Aring