The Compendium of Urban and Regional Development

The Academy for Territorial Development in the Leibniz Association (formerly known as The Academy for Spatial Research and Planning) (ARL) has been publishing the Handwörterbuch der Stadt- und Raumentwicklung for over five decades.

It is directed at interested academics and practitioners. A selection of English language articles can be downloaded here for free.

Looking for an article that is not yet available in English? Email us and let us know which article you would like to have translated!

The German versions of all articles are available here.


Maritime spatial planning

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1 Starting point
2 Spatial planning and international maritime law
3 Maritime spatial planning and European law
4 Spatial planning of German coastal waters
5 Spatial planning of Germany’s exclusive economic zone

Increasing conflicts related to the usage and protection of coastal waters have resulted in a need for spatial planning in relation to maritime areas. International, European and German law largely take this into account. Under German law, spatial planning is undertaken for both the coastal seas and Germany’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

Wilfried Erbguth, Mathias Schubert


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1. Introduction
2. Definitions and analytical perspectives on migration
3. Forms of international migration
4. Theoretical approaches
5. Effects of migration
6. Implications for spatial planning
Additional literature

Due to their quantity and selectivity, migration processes are increasingly relevant to planning processes. Migration leads to demographic and social changes; strategies of migrant integration must therefore take into account their heterogeneity and the spatial selectivity of their residential location. The different definitions of migrant status in the statistics must also be considered.

Birgit Glorius


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  1. Clarification of the term
  2. Reasons for mobility
  3. Mobility and travel behaviour
  4. Measuring mobility
  5. Mobility and space
  6. New mobility strategies
  7. Outlook
Additional literature

Spatial mobility refers to both migration-related mobility and daily, regular or occasional changes of location, triggered by the desire or need to carry out an activity at the destination. In this way, people explore the given options for action in space.

Barbara Lenz

Municipal economy

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1 Term and definition
2 Development
3 Legal framework References

The municipal economy is the activity of local authorities in economic competition with other entities. This includes, for example, energy and water supply, local public transport, savings banks, and house-building companies. The municipal economy is still of considerable importance. From a legal point of view, it is regulated by sectoral laws and the municipal laws of the German federal states.

Janbernd Oebbecke

Mutual feedback principle

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  1. Basic principles and origins
  2. Legal scope of the mutual feedback principle pursuant to section 1(3) and section 8(2), sentence 2 of the Federal Spatial Planning Act 
  3. General applicability of the mutual feedback principle in spatial planning law as a whole?

The mutual feedback principle, which is regulated in section 1(3) of the Federal Spatial Planning Act (Raumordnungsgesetz, ROG), primarily serves as a guiding principle for spatial planning and expresses a certain planning culture, but does not go beyond the express statutory requirements of participation, coordination and weighing of interests.

Boas Kümper