The Compendium of Urban and Regional Development

The Academy for Territorial Development in the Leibniz Association (formerly known as The Academy for Spatial Research and Planning) (ARL) has been publishing the Handwörterbuch der Stadt- und Raumentwicklung for over five decades.

It is directed at interested academics and practitioners. A selection of English language articles can be downloaded here for free.

Looking for an article that is not yet available in English? Email us and let us know which article you would like to have translated!

The German versions of all articles are available here.


Objectives, principles and other requirements of spatial planning

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  1. Requirements and binding effects
  2. Requirements of spatial planning
  3. Objectives of spatial planning
  4. Principles of spatial planning
  5. Other requirements of spatial planning
Additional literature

Objectives, principles and other requirements of spatial planning (Raumordnung) are key terms of spatial planning law, which are defined in section 3 of the Federal Spatial Planning Act (Raumordnungsgesetz, ROG) and linked to the legal consequences stipulated in section 4 of the Act vis-à-vis public bodies and private persons equivalent to them.

Peter Runkel

Open space

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  1. Significance within spatial planning
  2. Term and definition
  3. Functions and qualities of open space
  4. Past and current state of open spaces
  5. Conserving and developing open spaces in the context of sustainable spatial development
  6. Open space planning at the municipal level
  7. Current fields of action and need for development
  8. Outlook
Additional literature

Given its diverse functions, open space plays a central role in the development of cities and regions. In times of dynamic transformation processes, the potential of open space and the possibility to shape it in a flexible, multifunctional are of particular interest. Open space planning can draw on a variety of proven instruments. Nevertheless, there are flaws and deficits in planning practice at all levels, hence it remains a challenge going forward.

Andrea Maria Hartz