Overview

Geography

Hungary is located in central Europe. The country is landlocked. The bordering countries are (clockwise) Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Austria. Two large and predominantly navigable rivers flow through Hungary: the Danube (Duna) and the Tisza. The biggest lake is Lake Balaton (594 km²). The mean elevation is 143 m; the lowest point is at the River Tisza at 78 m, while the highest point is Kékestetö in the Mátra Mountains at 1,014 m (Central Intelligence Agency, 2019).

Demography

According to the self-declaration in the 2011 census the population of Hungary is dominated by ethnic Hungarians (85.6%), followed by Roma (3.2%), Germans (1.9%), and others (Romanians, Slovaks, Croats. etc., 2.6% in total), with a large number of respondents not specifying their ethnicity (14.1%). The official language is Hungarian, which is spoken by 99.6% of the population; that is to say, members of ethnic minorities usually also speak Hungarian (in addition to their mother tongue) (Central Intelligence Agency, 2019).

Political, legal and governance

Hungary is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral National Assembly (Országgyülés). Article B of the Fundamental Law (Magyarország Alaptörvénye) states: ‘1. Hungary shall be an independent, democratic state governed by the rule of law. 2. Hungary’s form of government shall be that of a republic. 3. The source of public power shall be the people. 4. The people shall exercise their power through their elected representatives or, in exceptional cases, directly.’ (The Fundamental Law of Hungary, n.d.).
The executive powers are shared between the president and the government. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces; proposes persons for the offices of the prime minister, the president of the Supreme Court (Curia), the president of the Administrative High Court, the president of the National Office for the Judiciary, the Prosecutor General and the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights; may send adopted acts to the Constitutional Court for an examination of their conformity with the Fundamental Law or may return them to the National Assembly for reconsideration. The government is the general organ of executive power and is accountable to the National Assembly. The members of the government are the prime minister and the ministers; the president appoints the ministers according to a proposal by the prime minister (The Fundamental Law of Hungary, n.d.).

There are the ministries for agriculture, internal affairs, human resources, defence, justice, innovation and technology, foreign economics and foreign affairs, finance, and the cabinet office of the prime minister and the state chancellery. Additionally, there are four ministers without portfolio, who are appointed for specific tasks (About Hungary, n.d.).
Hungary has been a member of the European Union (EU) since 2004.

General information

Name of country Hungary (Magyarország)
Capital, population of the capital (2020 est.) Budapest 1,750,216
Surface area 93,028 km²
Total population (2011 census) 9937628
Population density (2011) 107 inhabitants/km²
Population growth rate (2020, estimated) -0.28%
Degree of urbanisation (2020) 71.90%
Human development index (2014) 0.83
GDP (2019, official exchange rate) EUR 146,039.40 million
GDP per capita (2019, official exchange rate) EUR 14,946
GDP growth (from 2018 to 2019) 4.60%
Unemployment rate (2019) 3.40%
Land use (2011, estimated) 22.5% forest and scrubland 2.3% inland waters 58.9% agricultural land 18.6% built-up land and other
Sectoral structure (2015, estimated) 64.5% services and administration 30.3% industry and construction 4.9% agriculture and forestry

Administrative structure and system governance

Central state administration

Hungary is traditionally a unitary (non-federal) state. Most of the administrative tasks of the state (with the exception of defence, foreign affairs and similar tasks of a central character) are exercised on three different levels, which overlap to some extent with local self-government, rendering the structure somewhat difficult to grasp.

The top level of the administrative structure is the government (kormány). The government exercises all the functions and powers which are not expressly conferred on another organ by the Fundamental Law or other laws. The government is the principal organ of public administration; it may establish organs of state administration as provided for by an act (The Fundamental Law of Hungary, n.d.). The office of the prime minister performs ministerial tasks of planning and building (e.g. preparation of draft laws to be presented to the parliament and of government orders) (About Hungary, n.d.).

The middle level of state administration and territorial self-government

There are different levels of both state administration and of local self-government. In historical terms, there is a surprising continuity of some characteristics (Brenner, 2013; Brenner, 2020a). Hungary is divided into 19 counties (megye), a traditional territorial unit introduced by the founder of the Hungarian state, King Stephen the Holy. The county has a two-fold administrative character. Firstly, the counties are, according to the legal definition, ‘territorial self-governing bodies’ (területi önkormányzatok, as one of the two forms of local self-government) with elected councils. Secondly, a supervising authority, the County State Office (megyei kormányhivatal) is responsible for the tasks of middle-level state administration. In particular, those tasks include supervising the legality of the local government’s performance, state responsibilities relating to environmental and nature protection, occupational health and safety and family welfare. In the field of spatial planning, their role as building control authorities is relevant. In 2020, some tasks of the county state offices were transferred to central state agencies, e.g. the National Health Centre and the National Food Chain Safety Authority (Kormányhivatalok, n.d.).

For the Budapest area, the Capital State Office (fövárosi kormányhivatal) has the same responsibilities (Mötv., n.d.). The counties focus on spatial planning and on spatial development strategies (Brenner, 2020b).

The lower level of state administration and municipal self-government

The counties were subdivided into 174 districts (járás) as of 1 January 2013. The district offices are the lower level of the state administration and perform some tasks not directly performed by the county state offices, e.g. food and veterinary safety, employment, etc. (Government Order 218, 2012).

The other bodies of local self-government are the communities or municipalities (települési önkormányzat). 23 of them are so-called towns with county rights (megyei jogú város), sometimes known as ‘urban counties’ in English. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units (Wikipedia Contributors, 2019).

In accordance with the Act on Local Governments in Hungary (Mötv., n.d.), for indirect quotations of all Hungarian laws, the official Hungarian abbreviation will be used and the relevant paragraph will be cited but the publication date is omitted, thus deviating from the Harvard referencing system for practical reasons. The municipalities have the following main responsibilities: local development and planning, construction and maintenance of local streets and parks, public lighting, cemeteries, basic health services, pre-school services, social services (where not within the central state’s responsibility), environmental and cultural services, local public transport, water supply (where not provided by regional water services) and water economy.

The Act on Local Governments defines the City of Budapest as the capital of the country (Budapest Főváros) with a specific status. Budapest consists of 23 boroughs (kerület), which are self-governing bodies in their own right (Mötv., n.d.). The City of Budapest has no powers to ‘call in’ any decisions by the boroughs, which causes many administrative problems, especially in cases where there are politically strong and particularly ‘assertive’ borough mayors. Hence, in some cases the government can play ‘divide et impera’ (Brenner, 2013). In parallel to the district offices, the lower level state authorities responsible for overseeing the boroughs are the borough offices (Mötv., n.d.).

The City of Budapest is mainly responsible for the construction and maintenance of main roads and public parks, social services, cemeteries, the public water supply, sewage, solid waste management, public metropolitan transport, cultural services and – last but not least – planning issues related to the whole area of the city. The boroughs are responsible for the construction and maintenance of local streets and parks, basic health services, preschools, care for the homeless, local culture, management of the borough’s property (social housing, to the extent that it still exists after large-scale privatisation in the 1990s) and especially for planning in their area (Mötv., n.d.).

Spatial planning system

Spatial development and planning in Hungary – a brief history

Beyond the current debates about political problems within and with Hungary, it should not be forgotten that there is considerable professional knowledge of and commitment to spatial development and planning in the country. The papers the author refers to comprise several hundreds of pages, so this overview can only focus on a few key points. The terminology seeks to follow the terms used in British English, and the quotations are translated from Hungarian by the author.

In Hungary, there is on both the territorial (national and regional) and local level a clear distinction between development planning on one hand and spatial planning – more in the sense of physical planning – on the other hand (for details, cf. the appendix ‘Planning system of Hungary’). There is a long tradition of planning: Law No. 6 on Urban Planning and Construction of 1937 provided for a municipal development programme as a legally binding (!) prerequisite for physical planning with its two levels, the ‘general spatial plan’ of the whole municipal area and ‘detailed spatial plans’ for parts of it. The main features of the planning system remained unchanged by the Law on Construction of 1964, of course without the guarantees of property rights. However, the systemic change after 1990 was not so rigorous as in the former East Germany: in contrast to Germany, with some exceptions there was only compensation for expropriated property, and Hungarian planning traditions (from the pre-war period and to some extent from the Communist age, too) could be drawn upon during the transformation period. Today, Law No. 78 of 1997 on the Formation and Protection of the Built Environment (Étv., n.d.) with subsequent amendments regulates planning matters on the municipal (community) level.

On 10 March 2021, the government presented a draft bill on the reform of planning legislation to parliament (Planning Bill, 2021). The core of the draft bill proposes to reduce drastically the different varieties of plans. In future, there will be a ‘Local Development Plan’, adopted by the municipal council and incorporating the recent ‘Local Development Concept’, the ‘Integrated Development Strategy’, and the ‘Structural Plan’. The new ‘Regulation Plan’ is in fact a back-dated renaming of the existing ‘Local Building Regulation’ and its graphics, and will be adopted by the municipal council. The government expects the new legislation to come into force by 30 June 2021, and has announced an implementing regulation. The municipalities will have to adapt their planning to the new legal requirements by no later than 30 June 2027 (in Budapest, by no later than 30 June 2025). The present paper will therefore be updated after 1 July 2021.

The Law on Spatial Development and Planning of 1996

During the Communist rule, there was a spatial development policy based on the central places theory of Walter Christaller (Wikipedia, 2020). In 1971 a ‘countrywide concept of high, medium and basic level centres’ was introduced (Nemes Nagy, 1998). The concept was very much Socialist in style and was handled in a very rigid manner, so the system of central places was not taken on board after the 1990 political reset.

However, after lengthy discussions it was clear that spatial planning is not a Communist devilry, so in 1996 the Law on Spatial Development and Planning was introduced (Tftv., n.d.), followed in 1997 by the Law on the Built Environment (Étv., n.d.), covering urban development and planning and the health and safety requirements for construction works. According to Section 2 of the Law on Spatial Development and Planning (Tftv.), ‘the goals of spatial development and planning in all parts of the country are […] strengthening spatial cohesion, generating the prerequisites for sustainable development, assisting the spatial spreading of innovations, seeking a spatial structure to correspond with social, economic and environmental goals, […] reducing the substantial differences between the capital and the rural areas or the well-developed and the underdeveloped areas […] and ensuring equal social opportunities and preventing the emergence of further crisis areas’. Section 3 Tftv. requires the incorporation of the European regional policy into the national policy and implements the ‘counter flow principle’, similar to German legislation. However, the law does not really resolve the classic conflict between ‘strengthening excellences’ and ‘caring for the troublesome and burdened’. (Brenner, 2020b) According to Section 6 lit. a) Tftv., parliament determines ‘the granting of financial resources intended to serve spatial development and planning by adopting the annual budget’.

Section 23/D Tftv. provides for a ‘spatial land-use permit’ (térségi területfelhasználási engedély) to be used especially for the planning of linear infrastructural elements, which is to a broad extent similar to the German spatial planning process (‘Raumordnungsverfahren’).

The draft spatial development plans have to be discussed and agreed with the public bodies whose interests are affected and with ‘interested civil society organisations’ 
(Section 23/C Abs. 1 Tftv.), but there is no provision for general public participation.

For the benefit of cooperation between the counties, the latter can establish regional development associations as public bodies (Section 15 Tftv.). For conflict management, a ‘Countrywide Forum for the Reconciliation of Interests’ has been established, consisting of representatives of the government, the counties, the county-free cities, and the City of Budapest and its boroughs; similar forums may be established on the regional or county level (Sections 18/A and 18/B Tftv.).

The Countrywide Spatial Development Concept of 2014

The Countrywide Spatial Development Concept – or to give its full name, the ‘National Development 2030 – Countrywide Development and Spatial Development Concept’ (CSDC, 2014) – was concluded in accordance with Section 6 lit. a) Tftv. as a parliamentary resolution, not as a formal law, but is politically binding on the government and its agencies. It is the political and official basis of the Countrywide Spatial Development Plan (CSDP, 2018).

A large analytical section (cf. Fact sheet for planning levels: CSDC 2014) defines the concept behind the intended spatial development of Hungary. In addition to the ‘Important dimensions of Hungary’s spatial integration into the EU’, the paper defines the following ‘functional spaces: recreational space around Budapest; economic-technological core spaces; spaces with predominantly settlement functions; spaces with touristic functions; spaces under near-to-nature management; spaces with high agricultural potential’.

Under ‘Strategic spatial connections’, the CSDC seeks to complement the currently Budapest-centred transport system by developing tangents in the southeast and another following the line of the historic ‘amber street’ in the west. Furthermore, ‘spaces [are] proposed for the use of wind, solar and geothermic energy, and biomass’ (cf. Fact sheet for planning levels: CSDC).

The Countrywide Spatial Development Plan of 2018

Law No. 139 of 2018 on the Countrywide Spatial Development Plan of Hungary and of several emphasised spaces (CSDP, 2018) states in Section 1 the goals of the plan: ‘[…] defining the conditions of land use and the spatial order of coordinated infrastructural networks, strengthening efficient economic and spatial development, taking into account sustainable development, including the protection of natural, landscape, ecological and cultural values. In the interest of these goals, the […] spatial plan establishes a system which is coordinated with the spatial development strategies.’ This last sentence provides for a link to the CSDP. The CSDP is to be communicated to the ministers responsible for spatial planning in neighbouring countries (Section 23 Tftv.).

According to Section 5 of the CSDP, there is a ‘structural plan for the country’ and a ‘land use zoning plan’ (cf. Fact sheet for planning levels: CSDP). Section 9 of the CSDP lists the following ‘spatial land use categories: forests; agriculture; water resources; human settlements’. In more detail, there are ‘countrywide zones: core, corridor and buffer zones for the ecological network; zones for agriculture with high potential; zones for woodland and forestry; zones for areas of outstanding natural beauty; zones for world heritage and potential world heritage; protection zones for water and water resources; and zones for defence’ (cf. Fact sheet for planning levels: CSDP). The technical infrastructure networks are defined in the text of the CSDP. Where agricultural land is to be used for other purposes, the CSDP stipulates that compensation is to be paid. It is interesting that there is no system of central places (see the above section on the history of planning in Hungary).

As a sort of ‘Hungarian speciality’, the CSDP has two chapters dealing with the Lake Balaton Recreational Region and the Metropolitan Area of Budapest (cf. Fact sheet for planning levels: CSDP). Due to the fact that the government itself is the body responsible for preparing the CSDP, this is a very centralistic approach, which reduces the powers of local governments. In the specific case of the capital, this may be an attempt to correct the provisions of the Act on Local Governments (Mötv., n.d.), which gives only very narrow planning powers to the City of Budapest, and strengthens the boroughs as self-governing bodies in their own right. (Brenner, 2020b) However, the City of Budapest participated in the preparation of the CSDP and the Metropolitan Area Plan (Section 12 Tftv.). Unfortunately, in the case of the Lake Balaton Region, the plan is definitively too late: the south bank in particular is virtually a suburban area approximately 70 km long filled with weekend houses (Brenner 2020b).

The County Spatial Development Concepts and County Spatial Development Plans

The county councils prepare County Spatial Development Concepts (Section 11 Tftv.), participate in the preparation of the CSDC and the CSDP, and prepare County Spatial Development Plans as statutes (Section 12 Tftv.). According to various provisions of the CSDP, the county councils are entitled to define more specific and detailed zoning than the zoning laid down in the CSDP. They also coordinate the use of financial support for the development of rural areas and enhance cooperation with the municipalities and civil society organisations (Sections 13 and 13/A Tftv.).

The County Spatial Development Plan and the planning instruments at local level must comply with the CSDP (Section 3 CSDP).

The Law on the Built Environment of 1997

This law – to give its full name, Law No. 78 of 1997 on the Formation and Protection of the Built Environment (Étv., n.d.) – regulates development and spatial planning at local (municipal) level, including the instruments to implement the plans. The main responsibilities are allocated to the municipal councils (cf. Sections 6–6B Étv.). They are responsible for the coordination of different interests during the drafting process, the public participation process and the final adoption of the plans. Section 9/B Étv. makes a clear distinction between the instruments of development – the local development concept and the integrated local development strategy – on the one hand, and the instruments of (physical) planning – the structural plan and the local building regulation – on the other hand. Specific regulations apply for planning in Budapest (Sections 14 – 14/C Étv.): in addition to the structural plan for Budapest, the city council introduces a framework building regulation, setting parameters for the local building regulations of the boroughs, and state building regulations for two specific areas: the land use and construction works on both banks of the Danube river, and the Városliget (City Park, an intensely discussed government investment to locate a ‘museum quarter’ in the park).

The municipalities have a set of instruments to implement the plans. According to Section 17 Étv., the main instruments are: stipulations for construction works; prohibitions; rights of pre-emption; compulsory purchase; compensation for planning disadvantages; and planning contracts. A temporary construction ban can be imposed during the period needed to draft the local building regulation (Section 20 Étv.).

According to Section 4 Étv., in cases of ‘investments in emphasised interests’, which may be economic, historical or cultural, the government rather than the municipality has the power to define the plans (on national, regional and local level) for those areas. This can severely limit local self-government.

An important piece of sub-legislation to the Étv. is the Government Order on Countrywide Requirements for Planning and Construction, abbreviated in Hungarian as OTÉK (Országos Településrendezési és Építésügyi Követelmények, n.d.; OTÉK, Government Order No. 253/1997 of 20.12.1997 in the version as amended by different orders, is, in fact, comparable to the sum of the German Baunutzungsverordnung (BauNVO) and Landesbauordnungen.) The main zoning parameters for the local building regulations given in Annex 2 of OTÉK (if a position in the table is not filled in, there is no provision) are:

 

Type of land use  Floor space ratio (m²/m²) Coverage ratio (%) Building height (m) Minimum greening of plots (%)
Residential        

- metropolitan

3.0

80

> 12.5

10

- small towns 1.5 60 12.5 20
- garden cities 0.6 30 7.5 50
- villages 0.5 30   40

Mixed

 

 

 

 

- centres 2.4 80   10
- public facilities 3.5 locally defined   half of the non-covered area

Economic

 

 

 

 

- commercial 2.0 60   20
- industry with negative impacts 1.5 30   40
- other industry 1.5 50   25

Recreational

 

 

 

 

- holiday homes 1.0 30 > 6.0 40
- weekend houses 0.2 20 < 6.0  60
Special 2.0 40   40

The Law on Townscape Protection of 2016

Usually the protection of townscapes is an integral part of planning legislation, and this was the case in Hungary until 2016, when the Law on Town Protection (Tvtv., 2016) was introduced. However, Section 2 Tvtv. refers to the Étv., stating that requirements for townscapes are a specific instrument of planning (so the townscape regulation is not listed as a plan in its own right). In addition to the ‘classic’ planning instruments of the structural plan and local building regulation, the Tvtv. gives municipalities the power to establish local townscape regulations (in addition to the local building regulations, which is a bit confusing), including stipulations on construction works, the use of materials, the characteristic street and place views, the listing of buildings of local importance (in addition to the national list), advertising structures, etc. The mayor can give an expert opinion on the townscape in the application process for the building permit. As an official basis of the townscape protection regulations, the municipalities must prepare ‘townscape handbooks’.

This split between instruments is regrettable, not least due to the fact that (in contrast to Germany) in Hungary there is no constitutional split between planning and building legislation. Hence, the Local Townscape Regulation (which in German might be called ‘Ortsbildsatzung’) exists parallel to the Local Building Regulation, the main binding instrument of planning (for details, please see the relevant section).

The Local Development Concept

According to Section 2 No. 27 Étv., the Local Development Concept is ‘a document based on the environmental, social and economic circumstances of the municipality, which is prepared for the whole municipality and which determines the directions of change and the long-term development goals’. The concept is not legally binding, but is rather a self-commitment on the part of the municipality, based on a council decision.

The Integrated Local Development Strategy

As defined in Section 2 No. 12 Étv., the Local Development Strategy is ‘a mid-term development programme, serving the implementation of the ecological, social and economic goals as defined in the Local Development Concept’. This strategy could be seen as a part of the Local Development Concept, but the Étv. defines it as an instrument in its own right; like the concept it is not legally binding, but rather a self-commitment on the part of the municipality, based on a council decision.

The Structural Plan

The Structural Plan ‘provides for the implementation of the goals as defined in the Local Development Concept and determines the structure of the municipality’s territory, the land use, and the arrangement of the technical infrastructure networks’ (Section 2 No. 29 Étv.), taking into account the higher level plans and the plans of neighbouring municipalities. The Structural Plan is binding for all public actors that took part in the planning process. The municipal council adopts the Structural Plan by resolution.

The Local Building Regulation

This instrument (cf. Section 13 Étv.) consists of text and a map (in a former version of the Étv. it was called the ‘Regulation Plan’, but the name was changed for legal reasons). The Local Building Regulations are adopted as local statutes and are binding for all actors.

The Local Building Regulations provide for the delimitation of zones; zoning in terms of the type and degree of building and land use (cf. OTÉK, n.d.); maximum building heights; building lines and boundaries; parking places; the protection of the townscape, areas of outstanding natural beauty, and areas of archaeological interest.

The Spatial Development Concept of Vas County

The concept (Vas Megyei Közgyülés, 2014) consists of a future vision for the county, the development goals including their connection with the goals of the CSDC (2014) and the (former version of) the CSDP (2018) and with the sectoral concepts, a broad outline of the intended land use, the ‘system of development instruments and institutions’ (Vas Megyei Közgyülés, 2014: 22; see also the Fact Sheet), and the planning process including public participation.

The Spatial Development Plan of Vas County

The plan defines in detail (see also the Fact Sheet for planning levels: County Development Plan) – in addition to Vas Megyei Közgyülés 2010a – different spatial zones and infrastructure: urbanised areas; rural settlements; mixed use areas; forests; agricultural areas; potential flooding areas; main and other roads; the nationwide and regional network of cycle paths; the main and secondary railway lines (Vas Megyei Közgyülés 2010b).

The Local Development Concept of Szombathely

Szombathely is the seat of Vas County, founded in Roman times and most likely the hometown of St. Martin. In 2011 the city had approximately 79,000 inhabitants (Szombathely, 2017a: 24). The concept defines in the form of a pyramid (Szombathely, 2017a: 12; cf. Fact sheet) the goals of sustainable development, consisting of economic, ecological and environmental goals, with a time perspective to 2030. For spatial aspects, see the Fact Sheet.

The Integrated Local Development Strategy of Szombathely

Based on the Concept, the Strategy formulates concrete proposals for action areas (Szombathely 2017a: 66), to be financed particularly from EU sources (cf. Fact sheet).

The Structural Plan of Szombathely

As stated in the Étv., the Structural Plan ‘determines the structure of the municipality’s territory, the land use, and the arrangement of the technical infrastructure networks’ (Section 2 No. 29 Étv.). The Fact Sheet shows the Structural Plan of Szombathely (Szombathely, n.d.) – due to the fact that the original file is too big to be reproduced properly in this paper, the Fact Sheet merely shows a detail.

The Local Building Regulation of Szombathely

The Local Building Regulation consists of a map and of written regulations, which add legally binding details. The original plan is also too big to be reproduced properly here; again, the Fact Sheet for planning levels – the municipality level – shows a detail (Szombathely, n.d.). For better understanding, here is an example of zoning stipulations (see also OTÉK, n.d., Annex 2):

Zoning stipulations Hungary

Lke – housing area with garden city character; Sz – detached buildings; 30 – maximum coverage ratio; 5.5 – maximum building height; 1000 – minimum plot size

The Local Township Regulation of Szombathely

The Local Regulation on Township Protection of 2017 (Szombathely, 2017b) has the following main goals:

  • Protection of local architectural heritage;
  • Protection of areas of importance for the townscape; 
  • Stipulations for advertising structures;
  • Protection and funding instruments. 

The regulation contains an appendix indicating the locally listed (protected) street views and buildings. Originally, the Local Building Regulations had some provisions relating to the townscape, which now form – according to the the current legal basis (Tvtv., n.d.) – a separate regulation.

Important stakeholders

Institution/stakeholder/authorities Special interest/competencies/administrative area Contact (including webpage)
The Prime Minister’s Office (Miniszterelnök-ség)







Lechner Tudásközpont Nonprofit Kft.







Magyar Urbanisztikai Társaság (MUT)
Deputy State Secretary for Architecture, Construction and the Protection of Heritage, Department of Spatial Planning and Communities


Centre of excellence for spatial planning on the national, regional and local level; subordinate agency of the Prime Minister’s Office

Hungarian Society for Urban Planning: professional and civil association for urban planning professionals
Website: https://kormany.hu/miniszterelnokseg/helyettes-allamtitkarok; their tasks in more detail: http://www.kozlonyok.hu/kozlonyok/Kozlonyok/12/PDF/2017/27.pdf
Postal address: H-1357 Budapest, Pf. 6.
Telephone: +36-1-795-5000
Fax: +36-1-795-0381
Central email address: erkeztetok@me.gov.hu
Press contacts: sajto@me.gov.hu

Website: lechnerkozpont.hu
Office: H-1111 Budapest, Budafoki út 59.
Postal address: H-1507 Budapest, Pf. 2.
Telephone: +36(1)279-2640, +36(1)279-2610,
+36(1)222-5101
Central email address: info@lechnerkozpont.hu




Website: www.mut.hu
Office: H-1094 Budapest, Liliom utca 48.
Telephone: +36 1 215-5794
Central email address: mut@mut.hu

List of references

Brenner, J. (2013): Umfassende Reform des Städtebaurechts in Ungarn, Zeitschrift für deutsches und internationales Baurecht, 2013, 1, 7-12.

Brenner, J. (2020a): Neueste Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Baurechts in Ungarn, Zeitschrift für deutsches und internationales Baurecht, 2020, 6, 632-635.

Brenner, J. (2020b): Raumentwicklung und Raumordnung in Ungarn, Zeitschrift für deutsches und internationales Baurecht, 2020, 1, 16-19.

Central Intelligence Agency (2019): Europe :: Hungary — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html (Accessed 11 November 2020).

CSDC (2014): 1/2014. (I. 3.) OGY határozat a Nemzeti Fejlesztés 2030 – Országos Fejlesztési és Területfejlesztési Koncepcióról. [online] Magyar Közlöny No. 1 of 3 January 2014, 7). Available at: http://www.kozlonyok.hu/nkonline/MKPDF/hiteles/MK14001.pdf (Accessed 14 November 2020).

CSDP (2018): 2018. évi CXXXIX. törvény Magyarország és egyes kiemelt térségeinek területrendezési tervéről. [online] Magyar Közlöny No. 216 of 28 December 2018, 37518). Available at: http://www.kozlonyok.hu/nkonline/MKPDF/hiteles/MK18216.pdf  (Accessed 14 November 2020).

Actualitix (n.d.): Hungary - HDI - Human Development Index – 2016. Available at: https://en.actualitix.com/country/hun/hungary-human-development-index.php (Accessed 11 November 2020).

Étv. (n.d.): 1997. évi LXXVIII. törvény az épített környezet alakításáról és védelméről - Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye. Available at: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=99700078.tv (Accessed 13 November 2020).

Government Order 218 (2019): A Kormány 218/2012. (VIII. 13.) Korm. Rendelete a járási (fõvárosi kerületi) hivatalokról. Available at: http://www.kozlonyok.hu/nkonline/MKPDF/hiteles/MK12107.pdf (Accessed 11 November 2020).

About Hungary (n.d.): Magyarország Kormánya. Available at: https://kormany.hu/a-kormany-tagjai (Accessed 12 November 2020).

KORMÁNYHIVATALOK (n.d.): Gyorsabbá és hatékonyabbá válik az ügyintézés. Available at: https://www.kormanyhivatal.hu/hu/hirek/gyorsabba-es-hatekonyabba-valik-az-ugyintezes (Accessed 13 November 2020).

Mötv. (n.d.): 2011. évi CLXXXIX. törvény Magyarország helyi önkormányzatairól - Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye. Available at: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1100189.tv (Accessed 11 November 2020).

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Fact sheets

Appendix

  • Administrative structure of Hungary

  • System of powers of Hungary

  • Planning system of Hungary

  • Planning System Hungary Local Physical Planning

  • Planning System Hungary Regional

  • Planning System Local Development Hungary

Discussion