Judicial review proceedings are undertaken by the courts on request. A distinction is made between abstract judicial review, in which the validity of a law is examined independent from concrete cases, and concrete judicial review in which the court rules on the validity of the norm in examining the case at hand. Judicial review addresses not only issues of material appropriateness but also compliance with superordinate laws and regulations.
The plaintiff is entitled to take action only if directly affected. Private persons cannot therefore take legal action against spatial structure plans, since such plans cannot infringe individual rights under public law because, unlike binding land-use plans, they do not involve any direct reorganisation of land holdings. Potential plaintiffs are territorial authorities like municipalities, because they are bound by spatial structure planning.