L

Labour-market region

Communities linked by strong commuter traffic form a common labour-market region.

Land consolidation

The purpose of realigning or replotting agricultural land holdings is to promote efficient agriculture and forestry by assembling economically viable units of land where the land in single ownership may be dispersed and thus not conducive to efficient management. The realignment (or consolidation) process includes all the measures needed to improve the basic conditions for economic operations, to reduce unnecessary labour, and to facilitate economic activity (e.g. by laying out paths, tracks and ditches).
In the course of time, the original purpose of realigning agricultural land holdings has been reappraised and modified. Realignment is today seen as an integral means of re-ordering plot boundaries in rural areas and has an impact on planning and for the general concept of land reallocation which extend well beyond the agricultural sector. Nowadays, realignment may be undertaken for purposes of landscape conservation and nature protection, flood protection and village regeneration.

Land Consolidation Act

Sectoral planning with a significant impact on space and thus on spatial planning is governed by distinct legislation. The most important
federal planning acts include the following:

Transport and communication

  • General Railway Act
  • Federal Highways Act
  • Federal Waterways Act
  • Federal Air Traffic Act
  • Passenger Transport Act
  • Telegraph Routes Act;

Utilities

  • Energy Industry Act
  • Waste Avoidance, Recovery and Disposal Act
  • Federal Mining Act
  • Federal Water Act;

Environment and nature conservation

  • Federal Soil Protection Act
  • Federal Immission Control Act
  • Federal Nature Conservation Act
  • Federals Forest Act;

Agriculture

  • Land Consolidation Act
  • Act on the Joint Task

“Improvement of Agrarian Structure and Coastal Preservation”
Federal sectoral planning acts are often concretised by state legislation, for instance state nature conservation acts and state highway legislation.

Land law

Land Law includes all regulations that treat land as an object of legislation. Thus in Germany (local) urban development planning law, readjustment of land, consolidation and land evaluation, land protection legislation, land development rights, allotment law and urban conservation all form part of Land Law. According to the German constitution, it is within the jurisdiction of the federal authorities to pass concurrent legislation relevant to Land Law. German states are consequently allowed to legislate as long as, or in areas where, federal legislation is absent. The German Federal Constitutional Court has limited the legislative jurisdiction of the German federal authorities to those areas of Land Law anchored in planning law, while building regulations remain within the legislative authority of the states.

Land management

Land management is the term generally given to the combination of governmental and consensual tools for ensuring that land is used in a manner that conserves resources and satisfying needs. Land management seeks to combine these tools into an integrated planning process in the pursuit of a sustainable land-use and settlement policy. Adequate building land is made available to meet needs, while the development of hitherto open spaces is reduced. In view of progressive land take in one place while large areas fall vacant elsewhere, a frugal use needs to be made of land at all levels of spatial planning (“land-resource policy”).
In its National Sustainability Strategy, the federal government calls for the reduction of land take for settlement and transport purposes. At the state and local government levels, information systems (registers) are to be developed as a substantive prerequisite for careful and frugal land management.

One aim of land management is to establish a closed cycle system, a cyclical process of planning, use, discontinuation of use, vacancy, and re-use. A key substrategy is land recycling, finding new uses for sites that are no longer or not optimally used. The inner development of a community is thus given priority over outer development, limiting settlement sprawl.

Land recycling

Land management is the term generally given to the combination of governmental and consensual tools for ensuring that land is used in a manner that conserves resources and satisfying needs. Land management seeks to combine these tools into an integrated planning process in the pursuit of a sustainable land-use and settlement policy. Adequate building land is made available to meet needs, while the development of hitherto open spaces is reduced. In view of progressive land take in one place while large areas fall vacant elsewhere, a frugal use needs to be made of land at all levels of spatial planning (“land-resource policy”). In its National Sustainability Strategy, the federal government calls for the reduction of land take for settlement and transport purposes. At the state and local government levels, information systems (registers) are to be developed as asubstantive prerequisite for careful and frugal land management.

One aim of land management is to establish a closed cycle system, a cyclical process of planning, use, discontinuation of use, vacancy, and re-use. A key substrategy is land recycling, finding new uses for sites that are no longer or not optimally used. The inner development of a community is thus given priority over outer development, limiting settlement sprawl.

Land register

The public land register maintained by the local court (Amtsgericht) contains entries for all of the properties within the jurisdiction of the court including details of all legal relationships attaching to each property, e.g. details of ownership and of any charges on the property. The entry (or “sheet”) for each property records changes in ownership as well as any new charges on the property. The land register serves to safeguard real estate transactions; everyone can rely on the completeness and correctness of entries.

Landscape planning

Landscape planning was formally introduced as at the federal level in 1976 in the Federal Nature Conservation Act on the model of nature conservation legislation already in force in a number of states. It is a cross-sectional planning instrument for attaining the goals of nature conservation and landscape management in both settled and non-settled areas. Like comprehensive spatial planning, landscape planning covers the entire territory, being divided into three levels:
1. landscape programme (dealing with the territory of a state),
2. landscape outline plan (dealing with a region),
3. landscape plan (dealing with the territory of a municipality).

The term “landscape planning” is also used to refer to the various processes leading to the production of a landscape programme, a landscape outline plan, or a landscape plan. The landscape programme covers the entire territory of a state and sets out supra-local requirements and the measures to be undertaken in the interests of nature conservation and landscape management in accordance with the principles and goals of spatial planning. However, the Federal Nature Conservation Act allows a good deal of latitude regarding the precise manner in which landscape planning is to be organised; this has in fact allowed some states (including the city-states) to dispense with separate landscape programmes.

The landscape programme covers sections of the state territory (regions), setting out supra-local requirements and the measures to be undertaken in the interests of nature conservation and landscape management in accordance with the goals of spatial planning. The landscape plan, which consists of textual and a cartographic components, lays down local requirements and the measures for attaining the goals of nature conservation and landscape management. Landscape plans are to be prepared whenever and wherever this is in the interests of nature conservation and landscape management. Under the Federal Nature Conservation Act, landscape plans are required to describe and assess the current and desirable future state of nature and landscapes and to lay down the necessary measures to be taken. In preparing land-use plans, full account has to be taken of landscape plans during weighing public and private interests stipulated for urban land-use plans.

Local administrative unit

In the system of territorial units for statistical purposes (NUTS) developed by Eurostat for use in Europe, the administrative associations and municipalities in the Federal Republic are classified as LAU 1 and LAU 2 (Local Administrative Units).

Local authority

The municipality, often referred to as local authority, is a political and administrative unit with its own territory. It is a territorial authority (Gebietskörperschaft) constituting the lowest level in the administrative structure of the Federal Republic of Germany. According to Article 28 of the Basic Law, municipalities have the right of local self-government, that is, the right to manage all the affairs of the local community on their own responsibility. The term “Kommune” is used synonymously with “Gemeinde,” and larger municipalities are also referred to as “Stadt” (translated as city or town depending on size). In terms of independence and size, municipalities are divided into municipalities belonging to counties (kreisangehörige Gemeinden), cities belonging to counties (kreisangehörige Städte), county-free cities (kreisfreie Städte) (often also translated as “county borough” or “independent city”), and municipalities integrated into administrative associations (Verwaltungsgemeinschaften). Such associations group small municipalities with fewer than 3,000 to 5,000 inhabitants in order to enhance the administrative capability of the communities. The groupings differ in name from state to state: “Verwaltungsgemeinschaft,” “Samtgemeinde,” “Amt.”

The decisionmaking bodies of these associations are termed association councils (“Gemeinschaftsräte”), composed of the mayors and representatives of the municipal councils of member municipalities. Municipalities are competent in all areas directly affecting the local community. These functions are referred to as self-government tasks. They are either non-mandatory or mandatory. Only tasks that by their nature have to be entrusted to other levels of government and administration are excepted from local autonomy. To ensure the effective performance of their autonomous functions, municipalities have the right to adopt generally binding bye-laws for managing the affairs of the community. Apart from their autonomous responsibilities, municipalities have delegated functions to perform. In so doing, municipalities act in an executive capacity on behalf of the state or federal government. In the system of territorial units for statistical purposes (NUTS) developed by Eurostat for use in Europe, the administrative associations and municipalities in the Federal Republic are classified as LAU 1 and LAU 2 (Local Administrative Units)

Local planning autonomy

Local or municipal planning autonomy refers to the local planning rights constitutionally guaranteed to local authorities. The basis for planning autonomy is the constitutional right of municipal selfgovernment. The constitution of the Weimar Republic, Article 28 of the Basic Law, and the constitutions of the West German states have entrenched the system of local self-government. Article 28 of the Basic Law lays down that municipalities must be guaranteed the right to regulate all local affairs on their own responsibility within the limits prescribed by the laws. The Federal Building Code accordingly specifies that land-use plans are to be prepared by the municipality on their own responsibility.

Local self-government

Local or municipal planning autonomy refers to the local planning rights onstitutionally guaranteed to local authorities. The basis for planning autonomy is the constitutional right of municipal selfgovernment.

The constitution of the Weimar Republic, Article 28 of the Basic Law, and the constitutions of the West German states have entrenched the system of local self-government. Article 28 of the Basic Law lays down that municipalities must be guaranteed the right to regulate all local affairs on their own responsibility within the limits prescribed by the laws. The Federal Building Code accordingly specifies that land-use plans are to be prepared by the municipality on their own responsibility.