W

Waste avoidance

Land management is the term generally given to the combination of governmental and consensual tools for ensuring that land is used in a manner that conserves resources and satisfying needs. Land management seeks to combine these tools into an integrated planning process in the pursuit of a sustainable land-use and settlement policy. Adequate building land is made available to meet needs, while the development of hitherto open spaces is reduced. In view of progressive land take in one place while large areas fall vacant elsewhere, a frugal use needs to be made of land at all levels of spatial planning (“land-resource policy”). In its National Sustainability Strategy, the federal government calls for the reduction of land take for settlement and transport purposes. At the state and local government levels, information systems (registers) are to be developed as a substantive prerequisite for careful and frugal land management.

One aim of land management is to establish a closed cycle system, a cyclical process of planning, use, discontinuation of use, vacancy, and re-use. A key substrategy is land recycling, finding new uses for sites that are no longer or not optimally used. The inner development of a community is thus given priority over outer development, limiting settlement sprawl.

Water law

The water rights of federal and state regulates the management, use, protection and management of the waters. The Water Act (WHG) include provisions on the protection and use of surface waters, coastal waters and groundwater and the provisions concerning the extension of water and water planning. The new version of the WHG served in particular the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC), which ensures uniform orientation of water policy in the EU. The primary objectives of the WFD, the achievement of good ecological and chemical status of surface waters and the creation of a good chemical and quantitative status of groundwater. For artificial or heavily modified waters-these have good ecological potential and good chemical state can be achieved. An important aspect of the WFD is its areal-and overall approach in the form of Geographically specific river basin districts. All significant pressures in the catchment area of waters shall be collected and forth visibly evaluate their impact on the aquatic environment to be. Further calls for the introduction of the WFD cost recovery principle in the price of water policy, consider also the so-called environmental and resource costs. 

The river basin approach will require the co-operation between administrative units, including cross-border, beyond the WFD involves considerable coordination and need for coordination with the other geographic sector planning and the spatial overall we have the experience to implement still do not have all the steps. There are, nevertheless, that not all the targets within the time limits can be achieved.

Water management plan

Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (WFD) has led a European cross-border water pollution and water management. The implementation of this directive are regulations on water resources planning are found in the WHG. Accordingly, to achieve the management objectives set out for each river basin district in accordance with state law to prepare an action program. In addition, for each river basin district to establish a management plan, which includes an extensive data collection, management objectives and measures program. When drawing up of action programs and management objectives, the objectives of the Regional Planning should be considered and take into account the requirements of regional planning.

Weak economic structures

Spatial categories (spatial order categories, area types) are areas defined in terms of specific criteria in which comparable structures exist and where similar spatial planning goals are pursued. Spatial categories can be defined in terms of settlement structure, quality, or potential. There is no binding set of area types. Comprehensive spatial planning and state spatial planning define them for their own purposes. The administrative borders of territorial authorities (municipalities or counties) are generally taken, although more recent models use geographically more precise boundaries. The most important defining criteria are population density, centrality, and location. The numbers and names of categories vary. In settlement structure approaches, for example, the spectrum runs from metropolitan area (agglomeration, conurbation) to rural area (sparsely populated region). Problemoriented approaches make use of spatial categories like “growth region” (area with good development prospects) or “structurally weak area” (region with adverse economic development).

(adapted from BBR 2005: 15 ff, 175 ff; ARL 2003 and Gruber 1995: 357 ff.)

Weighing of interests

View in Compendium

In preparing decisions in all fields of spatial and sectoral planning, interests typically need to be weighed. This is a key requirement in planning for the benefit of society under the rule of law. A complex theoretical framework has consequently been developed to achieve this in applying building and sectoral planning law. The requirement to weigh interests in urban land-use planning is enshrined in the Federal Building Code. Conflicting public and private interests are to be weighed against each other and given fair consideration This places a duty on municipalities to ensure:
1. that interests are duly weighed,
2. that all matters warranting consideration are covered,
3. that there is no failure to appreciate the importance of public and private interests
4. that the balance achieved is proportionate to the objective importance of individual interests.

Within these limits a municipality is free to decide in favour of one interest and thus against another.

Workshops on the Future

Urban development planning is that part of the planning activities of a municipality which is concerned with settling development aims either for the entire municipal territory or for specific sections of it. It thus sets the framework for urban development suited to meeting the social, cultural and economic needs of the community. This framework includes capital investment on the part of the municipality, where this has implications for spatial development, and lays down the sequence and order of priority. Urban development planning also serves to draw together and co-ordinate the various sectoral plans and to focus them on one common goal. It is this cross-sectoral dimension of urban development planning that sets it apart from urban landuse planning, the role of which is limited to preparing and steering the use of land in the municipal territory for building or for other purposes. Unlike urban land-use planning, urban development planning does not focus on the graphical presentation of future spatial developments but on mostly verbal statements about the goals and means of steering development. Urban development planning is not governed by federal law; essentially it is up to the municipalities to decide informally and at their own discretion whether to make use of this planning instrument. Concepts are often developed using dialogue-oriented procedures like urban forums, planning and future search workshops, and public urban development discussions.

They are accordingly less regulatory than process and procedure-oriented. Such concepts represent no allembracing claim to control and implementation. They provide a basis for reaching agreement on objectives and guiding principles and a matrix for evaluating individual planning steps and projects. The comprehensive integrated urban development concepts and urban development concepts defining the goals of development in shrinking communities are particularly important in the context of urban redevelopment.